Hydro-Printing Conductive Patterns onto 3D Structures

Magdassi Shlomo, HUJI, Faculty of Science, The Institute of Chemistry


Depositing conductive material on uneven and complex topographies is challenging while printing conductive patterns onto 3D structures. Available solutions to this need are complicated, require costly printers that are not suitable for rapid industrial processes.

The proposed process enables fabrication of electrical circuits for the field of printed and 3D electronics

Our Innovation

A novel and facile method for printing functional conductive patterns and circuits on 3D objects with unconventional angles using hydroprinting of silver nanoparticles (NPs) based ink.

  • Printing on any topography (including curved shape object and over 90° angle) with a variety of active materials.
  • Fabricate electrical circuits onto previously inaccessible objects.
  • Printing a whole pattern in one step on the 3D object from all facets.
  • Can be performed for many objects simultaneously.
  • Suitable for fabrication of multilayer and overlapping circuits, simply by repeating the process as many layers as required.
  • Simple and low cost process.
  • Can be tailored for a variety of conductive inks.


  • Conductive inks such as silver nanoparticles ink is printed  (by a variety of technologies, including inkjet) on water soluble polyvinyl alcohol films. Sintering at room temperature is achieved by exposing the printed pattern to chloride ions.
  • Electric circuits are hydroprinted at low temperature on various 3D-printed structures and materials. The conductive patterns are hydroprinted and are assembled without any presence of sacrificial layer, which allows layer-by-layer overlap hydroprinting.
  • Silver conductive lines were hydroprinted on various sized and shaped objects: domes, cube-shaped steps, and spheres yielding in continues lines which are conductive in their entirely, without damaging the original dimensions of the printed patterns.
  • The process is suitable for objects structures made of plastic and  ceramic materials such as  epoxy, acrylate (both smooth and rough), gypsum, and glass.
  • Analysis of hydroprinted patterns shows that the resistivity is only about 15 times higher than silver bulk, which is considered suitable in most applications.




  • This method enables enabling specific electronic features—such as sensors and circuits—onto previously inaccessible structures.
  • New tool-set for the printed electronics industry, especially for the emerging field of 3D printed electronics. Applications that are expected to benefit from this new process are 3D printed antennas for communications, biomedical devices, 3D electronics and soft robotics.
  • Applies for a variety of materials such as metals, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and quantum dots, that are printed by various 2D printing technologies
  • Enormous potential in the emerging field of internet of things (IoT) when 3D objects will all be interconnected.


Patent Status

Published US 2021/0153345 A1